Type 2 diabetes mellitus: diet and treatment, nutrition and symptoms of the disease

Unfortunately, a disease such as type 2 diabetes affects more and more people every year. In terms of mortality, it ranks second, second only to oncology. The danger of such a disease is not only in constantly elevated glucose levels, but in the failure of almost all body functions.

"Sweet" disease is not treated, you can only minimize the risk of complications and avoid insulin-dependent type of diabetes. To normalize sugar levels, endocrinologists primarily prescribe a low-carbohydrate diet and regular exercise therapy. It turns out that type 2 diabetes diet and nutritional treatment is the main and primary therapy.

If with the help of diet therapy it is not possible to achieve the desired results, you should start taking hypoglycemic drugs. It is also necessary to monitor blood counts with a glucometer at home.

Causes and symptoms

unhealthy foods for type 2 diabetes

Diabetes refers to diseases of the endocrine system, when the level of sugar in the blood constantly rises. This is due to a decrease in the susceptibility of cells, as well as tissues to the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas.

It is noteworthy that the body produces this hormone in sufficient quantities, but the cells do not react with it. This condition is called insulin resistance.

There is no single and specific cause of type 2 diabetes, but doctors have identified risk factors, one of which is the age of 40 years. It is at this age that DM is often diagnosed. But this does not mean that the disease has developed dramatically. Most likely, the patient simply ignored the symptoms of prediabetes for many years, thereby exhausting the body.

Signs of SD:

  • thirst;
  • dry mouth;
  • slow healing of wounds and abrasions;
  • frequent urge to go to the toilet;
  • fast fatiguability;
  • drowsiness.

If at least one of the symptoms is manifested, it is recommended to visit an endocrinologist for an analysis in order to exclude or confirm the presence of an ailment. Diagnosis is quite simple - the delivery of venous and capillary blood. If you know the symptoms and treatment will be effective.

Diabetes is more common in the following categories of people:

  1. age over 40;
  2. overweight by abdominal type;
  3. malnutrition, when light carbohydrates (sweets, flour products) predominate in the diet;
  4. sedentary lifestyle without proper physical activity;
  5. high blood pressure;
  6. the presence of diabetes in the next of kin.

When treating a "sweet" disease, it is necessary to strictly adhere to a diet aimed at lowering blood glucose.

diet therapy

doctor recommends fruits for type 2 diabetes

>A properly formulated therapeutic diet, coupled with moderate physical activity, will become the main treatment for diabetes. One of the main rules is not to starve and not to overeat. The number of meals is six times a day. Last dinner at least a few hours before bedtime.

Type 2 diabetes Diet and nutritional therapy stabilizes blood sugar levels. Up to half of the daily diet should be vegetables. Also, the daily menu must include cereals, fruits, meat or fish and dairy products.

The body of a diabetic suffers from the lack of vitamins and minerals. This is due to a failure in metabolic processes not only of the endocrine system. That is why it is so important to eat a balanced diet.

From the above, the main principles of the diet can be distinguished:

  • small meals, six times a day;
  • minimum fluid intake - two liters;
  • do not starve and do not overeat;
  • dinner should be light, it is worth limiting yourself to a glass of fermented milk product or 150 grams of cottage cheese;
  • fruits should be included in breakfast;
  • in the preparation of vegetable dishes, use only seasonal products;
  • choose products according to the GI.

All diabetic foods should have a low glycemic index. Endocrinologists adhere to this indicator when compiling diet therapy.

In addition to observing the principles of nutrition, one should not forget about the permissible heat treatment, which is aimed at the absence of bad cholesterol in dishes.

Cooking is allowed in the following ways:

  1. boil;
  2. for a couple;
  3. in the microwave;
  4. bake in the oven;
  5. in a multicooker;
  6. stew, using a small amount of vegetable oil.

It is necessary to separately study the concept of GI and learn on your own how to form a diet based on personal taste preferences.

After all, the choice of products for diabetics is quite extensive and allows you to cook many healthy dishes.

GI of products in diet therapy

foods for type 2 diabetes

The glycemic index is a measure that reflects the effect of a certain food after eating it on raising blood sugar levels. Products with a low GI contain complexly digestible carbohydrates, which are not only necessary for the patient, but also give him a feeling of satiety for a long time.

Diabetics need to choose from those food categories that have a low GI. Food with an average indicator can be in the diet only occasionally, no more than twice a week. High GI products are able to raise the glucose level to 4 mmol / l in a fairly short period of time.

The glycemic index of foods is divided into three categories. But in addition to this value, you need to pay attention to the calorie content of food. So, some food has a value of zero units, but at the same time contains bad cholesterol and high calorie content.

A bright one will take fat, which does not contain carbohydrates and has 0 units, but it is categorically contraindicated for diabetics. GI division:

  • 0 - 50 units - low;
  • 50 - 69 units - medium;
  • over 70 units - high.

There is a special table of products with indexes to make it easier for the patient to create a menu for himself. Some products after heat treatment can significantly increase the index - these are beets and carrots. Raw they are allowed, but boiled under the ban.

Therapeutic diet allows you to cook dishes from such vegetables:

  1. onion;
  2. all varieties of cabbage - white and red, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, broccoli;
  3. garlic;
  4. eggplant;
  5. tomato;
  6. string and asparagus beans;
  7. lentils;
  8. peas;
  9. squash;
  10. cucumber.
greens and vegetables for type 2 diabetes

Many people are used to having potatoes on their table. But with a "sweet" disease, it is better to refuse it because of the high GI. In very rare cases, when it is still decided to use the tubers, they should be pre-soaked in water overnight. Thus, you can get rid of starch and slightly reduce the index.

Vegetables for a diabetic are a source of vitamins, microelements and fiber. They prepare not only fresh salads, but also side dishes, as well as complex dishes. It is allowed to diversify the taste qualities with greens - spinach, lettuce, oregano, basil, dill and parsley.

Fruits are an equally important component of the diet. The daily allowed norm should not exceed 150 - 200 grams. Fruits, even with a low index, cannot be juiced. With this treatment, they lose fiber and glucose rapidly enters the bloodstream.

When dieting, the following fruits and berries are allowed:

  • cherry;
  • apricot;
  • pear;
  • nectarine;
  • persimmon;
  • black and red currants;
  • all varieties of citrus fruits - orange, lemon, grapefruit, tangerine, pomelo and lime;
  • gooseberry;
  • sweet cherry;
  • peach.

There are many valuable substances in dried fruits, no more than 50 grams per day is allowed. Dried fruits are good to add to cereals, thereby creating a complete food dish. Dried fruits with low GI - dried apricots, prunes and figs.

Meat, offal, fish and seafood is also a daily part of the menu. At the same time, fish should be present at least three times in the weekly diet. Choose lean meats and fish. The skin and the remains of fat are removed from them, in which there are no vitamins, but only bad cholesterol.

Endocrinologists recommend the following products:

  1. chicken;
  2. rabbit meat;
  3. turkey;
  4. beef;
  5. quail;
  6. chicken liver;
  7. beef liver;
  8. beef tongue;
  9. beef lungs.

There are no restrictions on the choice of seafood. From fish, you can opt for pollock, hake, pike or perch.

Grains are a source of energy, so they give a feeling of satiety for a long time. Some of them have a high GI, in particular white rice. Its alternative will be brown (brown) rice, the GI of which is 50 units. It takes a little longer to cook - about 45 minutes.

Barley is considered the most valuable cereal, its GI is only 22 units. Other types of cereals are also allowed:

  • barley grits;
  • buckwheat;
  • oatmeal;
  • wheat porridge.

By the way, the thicker the porridge, the lower its index.

There are few restrictions on dairy and sour-milk products. All of them are based on the fat content of products. Therefore, it would be rational to refuse sour cream, margarine and butter.

Medical treatment

tablets for type 2 diabetes

If with the help of diet therapy it is not possible to achieve the desired results, the doctor is forced to prescribe hypoglycemic drugs. Their choice in the pharmaceutical market is extensive.

Self-medication is prohibited, since all pills have their own side effects. Only an endocrinologist can choose the right pills for the patient, taking into account his characteristics of the body and the course of the disease.

The purpose of hypoglycemic drugs is to stimulate pancreatic cells to increase the production of the hormone insulin so that it is in the blood in the required amount.

If in this case it is not possible to normalize the level of glucose in the blood, then the therapy includes several groups of hypoglycemic tablets.

Additional measures

exercises for type 2 diabetes

In the presence of type 2 diabetes, treatment should include feasible physical activity. This serves as an excellent compensation for high sugar levels.

That is, when playing sports in the body, all metabolic processes are accelerated, and glucose is absorbed faster.

You should devote at least half an hour a day to this lesson. If you can’t practice daily, then at least you need to walk in the fresh air on foot for forty minutes.

You can choose the following types of physical activity for type 2 diabetics:

  • yoga;
  • Nordic walking;
  • sports walking;
  • jogging;
  • cycling;
  • swimming.

If a person wants to study at home, then on the Internet there are many video courses dedicated specifically to diabetics.

If training takes place outside the home and after them there is a feeling of hunger, then it is allowed to make an additional meal - a snack. An ideal option would be 50 grams of nuts, which contain nutritious protein, have a low GI and perfectly fight appetite. Just do not exceed the allowable daily allowance, because such a product is high-calorie.

From all of the above, it should be concluded that the manifestation of diabetes can be minimized using only two rules: follow the principles of diet therapy for diabetes and exercise regularly.